Research by Country

On this page, which is still under construction, you will soon be able to find more detailed information on the countries included in the various research projects. This information will, among other things, include the type of border, the border regime and responsible border authorities, information on the influx of migrants, relevant legislation and case law, public opinion polls, and information on relevant key events.

Both European Union and Schengen Area members
Only European Union members
Only Schengen Area members

When researching borders, border mobilities and the management thereof in the European context, it is important to have an understanding of what the European Union and the Schengen Agreement entail.

The European Union is a unique economic and political union between 28 European countries. What began as a purely economic union has evolved into an organisation encompassing numerous policy areas, from climate change, the environment and healthcare, to external relations and security, justice, and migration. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital, to enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and to maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development.

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European countries (including EU and non-EU states) that have abolished passport and any other type of border control at their common borders. In other words, Schengen countries have removed internal borders and barriers to free movement. These internal borders may be crossed without being subjected to border checks. However, the competent national authorities can still carry out police checks at internal borders and in border areas, provided that such checks are not equated to border checks. This means that police checks cannot have border control as an objective. They must be carried out at random and for limited periods of time. Under such circumstances, the police may, for example, ask you to identify yourself or pose questions regarding your stay, depending on the purpose of the check. If there is a serious threat to public safety or internal security, a Schengen country may, in exceptional circumstances, temporarily reintroduce border controls at its internal borders for, in principle, a limited period of no more than 30 days.